Enzymes in Bread Making - In bread production, a knowledge of both the alpha-amylase content and the water absorption of the flour is essential. Heavy rainfall and high humidity at the time of harvesting leads to preharvest sprouting, and the synthesis of amylase. High levels of this enzyme in flour leads to excessive starch dextrinisation in the baking process, which results in a sticky loaf, which is difficult to slice. Water added to flour is absorbed by protein, pentosans and starch. The major variable affecting water absorption is the level of damaged starch granules which are produced during the milling of the grain. In modern baking practices the endogenous flour enzymes are commonly supplemented with enzymes of microbial origin e.g. α-Amylase, xylanase, and in some cases, proteases. Xylanase, through the modification of wheat flour arabinoxylans, can give up to a 10% increase in loaf volume. Proteases can be added to soften, particularly tough (bucky) glutens. However, high protease levels will destroy the gluten properties. Xylazyme AX finds widespread application in the measurement of xylanase in wheat flours and bread improvers mixtures. alpha-Amylase is routinely measured using Ceralpha: α-amylase assay reagent. The need for rapid and simple procedures for the measurement of protease in bread improvers mixtures led to the development, by Megazyme, of Protazyme AK Tablets and Azo-Casein (which is far superior to the Azo-Casein currently commercially available from other suppliers).
Analyte          Cat. No.       Analyte SignificanceAdvantages Of Megazyme Test Kits
Acetic AcidK-ACETRMCommon food componentK-ACETAK (auto) / K-ACETRM (manual) are very rapid acetate kinase (AK) based kits with excellent linearity.
K-ACETAKK-ACETGK is a new rapid, auto-analyser assay kit employing AK and phosphotransacetylase. Stable reagents
AmmoniaK-AMIARCommon food componentK-AMIAR has a very rapid reaction rate (~ 3 min at room temperature). Manual and auto-analyser applications
Amylose / AmylopectinK-AMYLRatio of these components affects the rate of digestion and utilisation of starchNovel kit, stable reagents
L-Asparagine / L-Glutamine / AmmoniaK-ASNAMAcrylamide precursors in the production of fried, roasted, toasted potato or other food productsNovel product, enabling all three analytes to be determined in less than 20 min. 
Manual and microplate format procedures given
L-Ascorbic AcidK-ASCONaturally found in fruits and vegetables, or supplemented in processed foodsRapid reaction, stable reagents
Available Carbohydrates / Dietary FiberK-ACHDFSugars rapidly digested and absorbed, and dietary fibreNovel procedure, stable reagents
β-Glucan (Mixed linkage)K-BGLUMajor cell-wall polysaccharide of barley and oatsRapid reaction, stable reagents, only enzymatic kit available. AOAC Method 995.16; AACC Method 32-23.01; ICC Standard No. 166; RACI Standard Method
Citric AcidK-CITRCommon food component / additiveIdeal for manual and auto-analyser applications
EthanolK-ETOHFound in small amounts in many foodsRapid reaction, stable reagents (AlDH supplied as a stable suspension)
FructanK-FRUCCommon component in many foods such as onions and seedsNovel assays, rapid reaction, stable reagents; AOAC Method 999.03; AACC Method 32-32.01
D-Fructose / D-GlucoseK-FRUGLVery common food sugars, e.g. from high fructose corn syrup supplementationIdeal for manual and auto-analyser applications. Stable reagents. Choice of spectrophotometric or simple colorimeter formats
D-Gluconic AcidK-GATEFood additiveRapid reaction, stable reagents
D-GlucoseK-GLUCCommon food component, very important in certain situations, e.g. diabetic productsChoice of simple formats available, based either on glucose oxidase / peroxidase, or hexokinase / G-6-PDH
L-Glutamic AcidK-GLUTCommon natural food component, e.g. in cheese and tomatoes, or added as a flavouring agent, e.g. as monosodium glutamate (MSG)Diaphorase supplied as a stabilised suspension rather than a lyophilised powder, thus less wasted enzyme
GlycerolK-GCROLCommon food component, or added as a sweetener or to improve “mouth feel”Novel tablet format offers superior stability, rapid reactions
D-Lactic AcidK-DATEQuality indicator of fruit and vegetable productsRapid reaction, stable reagents
L-Lactic AcidK-LATEQuality indicator of fruit, vegetable and egg productsRapid reaction, stable reagents. Ideal for manual and auto-analyser applications
LactoseK-LACGARCommon processed food component, exact amount important in “lactose free” productsVery rapid reaction for K-LACGAR (~ 5 min even at room temperature), stable reagents
MaltoseK-MASUGCommon food componentRapid reaction, stable reagents
Resistant StarchK-RSTARStarch that is not digested in the small intestine of monogastric animalsOnly kit available. Rapid and robust.
AOAC Method 2002.02; AACC Method 32-40.01
SucroseK-SUFRGCommon food componentChoice of simple formats available, based either on glucose oxidase / peroxidase, or hexokinase / G-6-PDH
SweetenersK-ASPTMAspartame, D-mannitol, D-sorbitol and xylitol are common sweeteners found in a variety of foods1. K-ASPTM - novel method, only test kit available 
K-MANOL2. K-MANOL - new method, only test kit available 
K-SORB3. K-SORB - diaphorase supplied as a stabilised suspension rather than a lyophilised powder, thus less wasted enzyme
Total Dietary FiberK-TDFRCarbohydrate not digested in small intestine1. K-TDFR: AOAC Methods 985.29, 991.42, 991.43 & 993.19; AACC Methods 32-05.01, 32-06.01, 32-07.01 & 32-21.01
K-INTDF2. K-INTDF is consistent with the CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber. AOAC Methods 2009.01 & 2011.25; AACC Methods 32-45.01 & 32-50.11
Total StarchK-TSTAMajor food componentRapid assay formats with options of measuring D-glucose with GOPOD reagent or with hexokinase / G-6-PDH. Stable reagents. AOAC Method 996.11; AACC Method 76-13.01; ICC Standard No. 168; RACI Standard Method